On November 11, 2019, International College of Innovation (ICI) and Taiwan Center for Security Studies (TCSS) at National Chengchi University in collaboration with St. Andrew’s University held a workshop about defense policy and strategic development. The workshop was co-chaired by Dr. Fu-kuo Liu (Dean of ICI and Director of TCSS, NCCU) and Dr. Masahiro Matsumura (Professor of International Politics, Faculty of Law, St. Andrew’s University). Some distinguished scholars participated in the workshop including Admiral (ret.) Richard Y.K. Chen, General (ret.) Sadamasa Oue, Dr. Hon-min Yau (Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Strategic Studies and International Affairs, National Defense University), Dr. Eddie Ting-hua Chien (General Director, Dual-Use Technology Development Center, National Ching-Shan Institute of Science and Technology), Dr. Toshitaka Takeuchi (Professor, Kyoto University of Foreign Studies), and Dr. Chihlung Laurence Tan (Deputy Secretary General, Institute of Marine Affairs, Republic of China). Some doctoral students from International Doctoral Program in Asia-Pacific Studies at NCCU also attended the event.
Adm. (ret.) Richard Y.K. Chen delivered keynote speech about strategic communication and mechanism for information sharing. He revealed that the Chinese military would continue to operate further away from China’s shores. Through United Front Work, China has integrated psychological warfare, media warfare, and legal warfare with sharp power. Moreover, China has adopted four asymmetrical measures against Taiwan: (1) coercing Taiwan by force, (2) excluding Taiwan from international organizations, (3) compress Taiwan through Washington, and (4) luring Taiwan by market. China’s behaviors have affected not only Taiwan but also regional countries. In response to such regional challenge, the Indo-Pacific countries need a strategy to both hedge and engage China. Adm. Chen suggested Taiwan and Japan work together to employ QGIS as a free and open-source cross-platform for establishing a mechanism for information sharing. He believed that QGIS can support both countries to view and analyze of geospatial data in Indo-Pacific region to protect Sea Lane of Communication for sustainability.
In the first session, Gen. (ret.) Sadamasa Oue and Dr. Hon-min Yau highlighted technologic development and defense. Gen. (Oue observed that the United States and China have pursued the military use of artificial intelligence (AI), but Japan and Taiwan have not seriously considered this new technological developments. Consequently, the possibility of cyber-attacks from China is considerably high. Given the massive technological developments in Japan and Taiwan, both countries have many rooms for cooperation in the military use of AI. Gen. Oue, therefore, suggested Japan and Taiwan to promote joint research and info sharing on China’s AI military strategy, ensure the security of big data against China’s exploitation, prevent the outflow of AI research and development assets, conduct joint research on non-lethal applications in combat operations and on defense measures against intelligent attacks using AI from China. Similarly, Dr. Yau suggested Japan and Taiwan to work together in cyber security. Since Taiwan and Japan are rich in information and technology resources, both countries need to formulate collaborating strategy in cyber security. Dr. Yau argued cyber war will not only be a war in cyberspace, but also a conflict in physical domains involving techniques of cyber warfare. Deep collaboration between both sides in technological know-how could offer a better early warning of cyber-attacks.
In the second session, Dr. Eddie Ting-hua Chien and Dr. Toshitaka Takeuchi talked about the review of Japanese and Taiwanese defense development. Dr. Chien reviewed the Island Chain Strategy which was first introduced by the U.S. foreign policy commentator John Foster Dulles in 1951 during Korean War. According to Dr. Chien, this strategy has shaped the modern international situation in the Western Pacific. As part of the first island chain, Japan and Taiwan have been and will continue to be the battlefront that faces China and related communist powers. Therefore, Dr. Chien suggested Japan to strengthen its capabilities for weapon development system and Taiwan to design its own submarines and next generation combat aircrafts. Both countries have potential collaboration in the fields of cyber-attack defense, disaster rescues, anti-terrorism, and humanitarian aid for regional stability and peace. To improve Japanese technological capabilities, Dr. Takeuchi emphasized specific technological and engineering know-how. However, Japan has had neither instruments nor any basic infrastructure over the past seven decades. This is the problem that Japan has faced in recent years.
In the third session, Dr. Masahiro Matsumura and Dr. Chihlung Laurence Tan discussed about exploration of defense cooperation. Dr. Matsumura asserted the strategic meaning of coordination between Japanese and Taiwanese surface-to-ship missile systems. According to Dr. Matsumura, China will aim to establish air and naval supremacy by first using missiles and legacy airplanes and then forcing Japan’s and Taiwan’s missile ammunition to run out, followed by raids of most advanced aircraft and then naval fleets and amphibious forces. To counter China’s measure, Japan should possess Tomahawk Land Attack Missile for general and specific deterrence. In this case, Taiwan lacks of information security and counter-espionage capability. With Japan’s leadership, Taiwan can adopt Japan’s approach focusing on ground-based surface-to-ship missiles (G-SSM) as a primary counter-measure that can overwhelm the air defense capability of China’s naval fleets. Dr. Tan also considered China as common threat to Taiwan and Japan. Today, major threats from China are its intention of unified Taiwan by force and assertion of sovereignty against Japan in East China Sea. Regardless restricted official contacts for military cooperation between Taiwan and Japan, both countries need to build up security cooperation mechanism, or even further to become proxy-alliance at certain degree.